Interjection: Grammatical meaning →  July 11, 2012

The interjection is a grammatically unchangeable part of speech that ex­presses human emotions, states of mood and volition without naming them. The latter property makes it possible for some scholars to contrast interjec­tions with so-called “intellectual words”. Interjections differ from all other parts of speech in their origin, specific nomination, phonetic structure as well as […]

Interjection: Structural and semantic classifications →  July 11, 2012

According to their derivational pattern, English interjections are as a rule divided into primary (simple) and secondary (derivative). Primary interjections (ah, hush, oh, ouch, ugh, wow) stem from reflex involuntary exclamations and sounds that represent the speaker’s immediate reaction to a certain event. Contrary to reflex exclamations and sounds that do not belong to the […]

Interjection: Syntactic functions →  July 11, 2012

English interjections tend to be used as independent word-sentences ei­ther in the principal clause, which they make more emotional, or in isolation. Used with the principal clause, interjections occur, as a rule, in pre-position, or – sometimes – in post-position. Used in isolation, an interjection retains its relations with the utterance, since this part of […]

Modal words in English →  July 11, 2012

Modal words are morphologically unchangeable words that function as parenthesis and express the correlation between the content of an utterance with the real-world situation as seen by the speaker. Therefore, modal words are treated as a lexico-grammatical means of the category of modality. One of their specific properties is that modal words are predominantly derived […]

Modal words in English – Part 2 →  July 11, 2012

Modal words in English – Part 1 Compound modal words are formed syntactically, i.e. from set expres­sions acquiring gradually properties of a word. The set expressions may be of various types. Sometimes, these are of the “preposition + noun” structure. One of the conditions that enable this word combination to transform into a modal word […]

Adverb: Syntactic functions →  July 11, 2012

Since qualities of events are reduced to their time, location, character and intensity, the main syntactic function of adverbs is that of an adverbial modifier. Da Vinci had been a cryptology pioneer, Sophie knew, although he was seldom given credit. (Brown) (adverbial modifier of time/frequency) …she calculated very carefully the intervals between one ink-spot and […]

Adverb: Morphological properties →  July 11, 2012

The adverb has no morphological properties that may be regarded as specifically adverbial and be used as a criterion to define its morphological status. Absence of inflections is not restricted to adverbs only; degrees of comparison do not cover all the members of this part of speech; only some adverbs are formed by the derivational […]

Adverb: Semantic classification →  July 11, 2012

Adverbs may be classified not only on the ground of their morphemic composition but also on the ground of their semantic characteristics. As a rule, semantically, adverbs are divided into the two large classes: 1) qualita­tive, 2) quantitative and 3) circumstantial. Qualitative adverbs express immediate, inherently non-graded quali­ties of actions and other qualities. In the […]

Adverb: Morphemic structure →  July 11, 2012

If the morphemic structure is taken as a ground of classification, adverbs fall into six groups: 1) The first largest group is made up of those adverbs formed from derived and base adjectives by adding the suffix -ly: evenly, smoothly, glamorously, beautifully, wonderfully, etc. 2) The second group originally very small, but in present-day English […]

Adverb: Grammatical meaning →  July 10, 2012

It might be expected that, since the adverb is a traditional part of speech, all debates over its status and properties are over. It is far from the truth. Ap­proaches to the adverb have been numerous: the adverb has undergone func­tional-semantic analysis, syntactic analysis, the correlation of its grammatical and lexical meanings has also been […]