Verb: Perfective and Imperfective Aspect →  26 Червня, 2012

Perfective and Imperfective Aspect In English three main time divisions (present, past and future) are con­veyed by fourteen verbal forms. The existence of the fourteen forms may be explained only by some additional meanings peculiar to these forms be­cause in the majority of cases their time reference coincides (cf. He has beentranslating – He has […]

Verb: Perfective and Imperfective Aspect – Part 2 →  26 Червня, 2012

Verb: Perfective and Imperfective Aspect – Part 1 Having clarified the difference between habituality and iterativity, we may now turn to the definition of habituality itself. The feature that is com­mon to habituality is that its means describe a situation which is character­istic of an extended period of time, so extended that the situation referred […]

Verb: Perfective and Imperfective Aspect – Part 3 →  26 Червня, 2012

Verb: Perfective and Imperfective Aspect – Part 1 Verb: Perfective and Imperfective Aspect – Part 2 Definitions of progressiveness found in some traditional grammars, along the lines of describing a situation in progress, often fail to bring out the difference between progressiveness and imperfectivity. So, in what does progressiveness differ from imperfectivity? Firstly, imperfectivity includes […]

Verb: Perfective and Imperfective Aspect – Part 4 →  26 Червня, 2012

Verb: Perfective and Imperfective Aspect – Part 1 Verb: Perfective and Imperfective Aspect – Part 2 Verb: Perfective and Imperfective Aspect – Part 3 In addition to this, the Progressive in English has a number of other specific uses that do not seem to fit under the general definition of progres­siveness, for instance in I’ve […]

Verb: Meaning of Present Perfect form →  25 Червня, 2012

The Perfect in English is rather different from the aspects, since it tells us nothing directly about the situation in itself, but rather relates some state to a preceding situation. As a preliminary illustration of this, we may con­trast the English sentences I have lost (Perfect) my gloves and I lost (non-Perfect) my gloves. One […]

Verb: Meaning of Present Perfect form – Part 2 →  25 Червня, 2012

Verb: Meaning of Present Perfect form – Part 1 Perfect of result In the Perfect of result, a present state is referred to as being the result of some past situation: this is one of the clearest manifestations of the present relevance of a past situation. Thus, one of the possible differences between John has […]

Verb: Aspect and Tense correlation →  25 Червня, 2012

All verbal forms – both finite and non-finite – are characterized by as­pectual meanings (cf. to have written, having written), but finite forms are impossible without temporal parameters and meanings. In correlation be­tween tense and aspect in finite forms, aspect is a permanent characteristic of a class, whereas tense is obligatory but variable (Present Progressive […]

Verb aspect: Definition →  23 Червня, 2012

Aspect is quite different from tense. The difference in English between he was reading and he read is’ not one of tense, since in both cases we have absolute past tense. It is in this sense that we speak of aspect as being dis­tinct from tense, and insist on such an opposition as that between […]

Verb aspect: Definition – Part 2 →  23 Червня, 2012

Verb aspect: Definition – Part 1 All theoretical works on the category of aspect in Germanic languages may be easily divided into two types. The first shows a purely semantic ap­proach that describes actions without paying any attention to the way they are expressed. As a result, aspect is seen not as an element of […]

Pronoun: Grammatical meaning →  23 Червня, 2012

Pronouns are characterized by an extremely generalizing meaning: they point out objects, entities, abstract notions and their qualities without nam­ing them. This generalizing part of speech is actualized contextually, and is deprived of any meaning outside a particular context. In other words, pro­nouns never name an object or its quality, pronouns only point them out […]