Verb Time and Tense Correlation – Future →  Червень 17, 2012

Future In terms of the analysis of tense presented so far, it might seem straight­forward to define future tense as locating a situation at a time Subsequent to the present moment. One would then be able to elaborate on this, in particu­lar demonstrating that any deduction that the situation in question does not hold at […]

Verb Time and Tense Correlation – Present →  Червень 17, 2012

Given the present moment as deictic centre, it might seem trivial to de­fine the three basic tenses that have formed the backbone of much linguis­tic work on time reference in grammar, namely present, past and future, as follows: present tense means coincidence of the time of the situation and the present moment; past tense means […]

Tense category of verbs: Tense and Deixis →  Червень 16, 2012

Time itself does not provide any landmarks in terms of which one can lo­cate situations. Even if time had had a beginning, we do not know where that beginning was, so we cannot locate anything else relative to that beginning. In principle a number of logical possibilities for reference points are available, and for lexically […]

Tense category of verbs: Definition →  Червень 16, 2012

The idea of locating situations in time is a purely conceptual notion. All the events are referred to one of the three time dimensions – the present, the past, or the future. All human languages have ways of locating in time but they do, however, differ from one another on two parameters. The first dif­ference […]

Verb grammatical categories: Person and number →  Червень 16, 2012

Number and person distinctions are found in verbs in many languages. This was the case in Old English where the verb was characterized by a devel­oped paradigm. In Modern English, verb forms have lost the vast majority of formal markers. As a result, the range of the two categories is very limited. The categories of […]

Verb: Functional classification →  Червень 15, 2012

The functional classification presupposes differentiation of verbs ac­cording to their ability to form a certain type of the predicate. This ability stems from the lexical meaningfulness of a verb. Notional verbs are lexi­cally meaningful verbs that denote an action or a state and perform in the sentence an independent function. In contrast, functional verbs exist […]

Verb: Morphological, combinatorial and semantic classifications →  Червень 15, 2012

All English verbs are divided into two groups on the basis of their mor­phological peculiarities, i.e. on the basis of the forms of the Participle II and past tenses. The most numerous group within this division is that of regular verbs: regular verbs form their main forms by means of adding a dental ending to […]

Verb: Morphemic structure →  Червень 15, 2012

Verb-forming derivational means are not numerous. The common de­vices are 1) affixation, 2) conversion, 3) verb+adverb combination, 4) back-formation. There is a rather short list of derivational affixes making English verbs. First, these are a limited number of suffixes such as the suffixes -en (to blacken, to strengthen, to toughen), -fy (to intensify, to ratify, […]

Verb: Grammatical meaning →  Червень 14, 2012

The verb is a part of speech that conveys a grammatical meaning of an action, i.e. of a dynamic quality developing in time. Here, the grammatical meaning of an action is stretched: it is understood not only as “action” proper but also as a state or a statement of existence of an object, or as […]

Numeral: General characteristics →  Червень 14, 2012

While the noun, the adjective, and the verb are characterized by all the three properties of a part of speech – morphological, syntactic and semantic, the numeral, like the pronoun, is distinguished only due to its lexical mean­ing. Numerals indicate exact number or the order of persons and things in a series. Accordingly, numerals are […]