Syntactic theory in Soviet linguistics →  26 Липня, 2012

The theory of the word combination is traced back to works by Russian scientists as early as the 18th century. The first remarks on the word combi­nation referred to cases of rather practical language use. It was at the close of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th centuries that a truly scientific theory […]

Descriptive linguistics →  26 Липня, 2012

Absence of set terminology is typical of Western syntactic research. The most frequent term for “word combination” (Ukr. словосполучення) used by Western scholars is “phrase”. Still, some scientists choose some other term. Thus, “phrase” was quite popular in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries but at the beginning of the 20th century Henry Sweet condemned […]

Descriptive linguistics – Part 2 →  26 Липня, 2012

Descriptive linguistics – Part 1 The differentiation between endocentric and exocentric constructions is based on the properties of a phrase that come to the fore in a larger syntactic structure. In other words, this approach ignores the inner structure of a word combination. Thus, for instance, despite differences in their inner structure, such word combinations […]

Descriptive linguistics – Part 3 →  26 Липня, 2012

Descriptive linguistics – Part 1 Descriptive linguistics – Part 2 Thus, if we compare John worked and The king of England opened the par­liamentary session, then The king of England may be the extension of John, while opened the parliamentary session is the extension of worked. The notion of extension is extremely important for Wells, […]

Descriptive linguistics – Part 4 →  26 Липня, 2012

Descriptive linguistics – Part 1 Descriptive linguistics – Part 2 Descriptive linguistics – Part 3 It should be noted that the approach suggested within descriptive lin­guistics for syntactic studies is of use for machine translation, since it may lay the foundation for formalized symbolic syntactic description. Issues of text processing and further transferring texts to […]

Particle: Semantic classification →  20 Липня, 2012

Taking into account this categorical meaning, it is possible to distin­guish the following types of particles: 1) additive (also, either, even, neither, too) that correlate the nuclear com­ponent with its counterpart on the ground of their similar properties: Jack was not prepared to deliver the report. Linda was not at her best at the meeting […]

Particle: Grammatical meaning →  18 Липня, 2012

Particles are subject to heated disputes in linguistics, since their inter­pretation depends on linguistic traditions as well as on an individual author. For example, Western scholars do not, as a rule, mention particles as a part of speech; in their classifications, these words are referred to adverbs, pro­nouns, and conjunctions. Thus, British and American grammarians […]

Particle: Grammatical meaning – Part 2 →  18 Липня, 2012

Particle: Grammatical meaning At the same time, it is in the 80s that the body of particles was blown up beyond measure. For example, some linguists started distinguishing between additive particles (equally, likewise, similarly, etc.), temporal particles (already, at last, any longer, so far, still, yet), limiting-specifying particles (chiefly, especially essentially, in particular, largely, mainly, […]

Conjunction-words →  16 Липня, 2012

Conjunction-words are used alongside of conjunctions to mark subor­dination. Among conjunction-words, there are conjunction-pronouns (who, whoever, what, which) and pronominal adverbs (when, where, why, how, etc.) that combine the properties of a functional part of speech with those of a lexical one. It is subordinate clauses that are introduced by conjunc­tion-words, since a conjunction-word carries […]

Conjunction: structural and semantic classifications →  16 Липня, 2012

According to their morphological structure, conjunctions are divided into the following groups: 1) simple (and, or, but, till, after, that, so, where, when, etc.); 2) derivative (until, unless, etc.); 3) compound (however, whereas, wherever, etc.); 4) composite (as well as, as long as, in case, on the ground that, for the rea­son that, etc.). Simple […]