General methods of obtaining and processing linguistic data

Лютий 24th, 201212:26 pm

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General methods of obtaining and processing linguistic data

The present-day linguistics

1. Informants

2. Recording

3. Elicitation

4. Experiments

5. Reconstruction

6. The comparative method

7. Quantitative method

8. Computer techniques

9. Corpora

Method – is means of description of linguistic data.

Aims of linguistics:

+ to collect data

+ to design methods

+ to construct theories

Linguistics is connected with arts, physics, literature.

1. Informants

Informants – an empirical active method.

2. Recording

Recording – an empirical active instrumental method.

3. Elicitation

In linguistics, elicitation is understood as an act of obtaining language information from another speaker.

4. Experiments

In grammar and semantics experiments studies usually take the form of controlled methods for eliciting judgments about sentences or the elements they contain.

5. Reconstructions

Reconstruction is applied when no data are available at all.

Linguistic reconstruction

Find more on the practice of linguistic reconstruction in this article online: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_reconstruction

6. The comparative method

The comparative method emerged in the 1st quarter of the 19th century. It became possible in connection with the comparative observations of the languages belonging to the Indo-European family and the discovery of Sanskrit.

Comparative method (linguistics)

 

The detailed overview of the development process of the comparative method can be found on this page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparative_method_(linguistics)

7. Quantitative method

The term quantitative linguistics is sometimes substituted with the terms “mathematical linguistics”, “speech statistics”, “statistical analysis”, “linguostatistcs”.

Modern linguists understand quantitative linguistics as:

Detailed infromation about quantitative linguistics and its subgenres could be found via this link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantitative_linguistics

8. Computer techniques method

Since 1980th the chief focus of communicational linguistic research has been in the area known as natural language processing (NLP).

Right now scientists have come to an understanding that a definition of the term “Natural language processing” is to look as it follows:

Natural language processing

To learn more about Natural language processin please refer to this article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_language_processing

9. Corpora

Corpora – the method of corpus analysis – is the most modern method of obtaining linguistic data.

A short definition of text corpus is provided below:

To learn more about this means of processing linguistic data please visit this article: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Text_corpus

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