The Periods in the History of the English Language →  September 10, 2011

I. Old English (500-1100 AD) West Germanic invaders from Jutland and southern Denmark: the Angles (whose name is the source of the words England and English), Saxons, and Jutes, began populating the British Isles in the fifth and sixth centuries AD. They spoke a mutually intelligible language, similar to modern Frisian—the language of northeastern region […]

The Place of English in the Indo-European Language Family Common Features of Germanic Languages →  September 10, 2011

The Germanic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, which were spoken by about 420 million people in many parts of the world (chiefly in Europe and the Western Hemisphere). All the modern Germanic languages are closely related; moreover, they become progressively closer grammatically and lexically when traced back to the earliest […]

The Principles of Language Classification →  September 9, 2011

In the philosophy of language, a natural language (or ordinary language) is a language that is spoken, signed, or written by humans for general-purpose communication, as distinguished from formal languages (such as computer-programming languages) and from constructed languages. The classification of natural languages can be performed on the basis of different underlying principles: • paying […]

History of English: its Subject, Object, Aim, and Problems →  September 9, 2011

It is well known that language, whether it is English, Russian or any other, is a historical phenomenon. As such it does not stay unchanged for any considerable period of time, or for any lime at all, but it is constantly changing throughout its history. The changes affect all the spheres of the language: grammar […]

The Methodology of Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) →  September 7, 2011

The Methodology of Foreign Language Teaching (FLT)   The term “методика” has several correspondences in English: methodology, methods and methodics. The latter is recognized by a few scholars [116,p.126]. In our course of lectures the word methodology will be used for “методика” and “методологiя” of teaching English as a foreign language [TEFL]. There are several […]

Methodology and Related Sciences →  September 7, 2011

Methodology and Related Sciences The belief that it is necessary to relate language teaching to an established scientific discipline is certainly not new. Indeed, it has been an important feature of several methods and approaches. M. West, G. Losanov and the methods associated with them looked almost exclusively to psychologists for guidance. Charles Fries based […]

Methodology and Pedagogy →  September 7, 2011

Methodology and Pedagogy   In providing the language teachers with tools designed for a specific teaching situation, several different disciplines are involved. Pedagogy, which is a science of teaching, has much to contribute here. Teachers in every country are familiar with textbooks which teach “classroom language”, a variety of the English language remote in several […]

Methodology and Psychology →  September 7, 2011

Methodology and Psychology   Teaching a FL means forming new and appropriate habits and skills and the utilizing previously acquired ones in four main types of activity: listening, speaking, reading and writing. Language study is essentially a habit-forming process, so we must learn to form habits. At present we have much material in the field […]

Methodology and Related Sciences – Linguistics →  September 7, 2011

Methodology and Linguistics Learning to speak a foreign language is acquiring the ability to express oneself in different sounds and words through the use of a different grammar. Some sounds, words as items of grammar may or may not have counterparts in the native language and these may have meanings or content which are similar […]

Teaching Listening Comprehension – English Methodology →  September 5, 2011

Teaching Listening Comprehension Listening comprehension is concerned with decoding of a speech, which involves continual mental processing, concentrated attention, and memory. In other words it represents a perceptive and mental mnemonic activity. In current methodology listening comprehension plays a dual function: as a means and as an aim of instruction. In real school practice these […]