Descriptive linguistics – Part 4 →  July 26, 2012

Descriptive linguistics – Part 1 Descriptive linguistics – Part 2 Descriptive linguistics – Part 3 It should be noted that the approach suggested within descriptive lin­guistics for syntactic studies is of use for machine translation, since it may lay the foundation for formalized symbolic syntactic description. Issues of text processing and further transferring texts to […]

Particle: Semantic classification →  July 20, 2012

Taking into account this categorical meaning, it is possible to distin­guish the following types of particles: 1) additive (also, either, even, neither, too) that correlate the nuclear com­ponent with its counterpart on the ground of their similar properties: Jack was not prepared to deliver the report. Linda was not at her best at the meeting […]

Particle: Grammatical meaning →  July 18, 2012

Particles are subject to heated disputes in linguistics, since their inter­pretation depends on linguistic traditions as well as on an individual author. For example, Western scholars do not, as a rule, mention particles as a part of speech; in their classifications, these words are referred to adverbs, pro­nouns, and conjunctions. Thus, British and American grammarians […]

Particle: Grammatical meaning – Part 2 →  July 18, 2012

Particle: Grammatical meaning At the same time, it is in the 80s that the body of particles was blown up beyond measure. For example, some linguists started distinguishing between additive particles (equally, likewise, similarly, etc.), temporal particles (already, at last, any longer, so far, still, yet), limiting-specifying particles (chiefly, especially essentially, in particular, largely, mainly, […]

Conjunction-words →  July 16, 2012

Conjunction-words are used alongside of conjunctions to mark subor­dination. Among conjunction-words, there are conjunction-pronouns (who, whoever, what, which) and pronominal adverbs (when, where, why, how, etc.) that combine the properties of a functional part of speech with those of a lexical one. It is subordinate clauses that are introduced by conjunc­tion-words, since a conjunction-word carries […]

Conjunction: structural and semantic classifications →  July 16, 2012

According to their morphological structure, conjunctions are divided into the following groups: 1) simple (and, or, but, till, after, that, so, where, when, etc.); 2) derivative (until, unless, etc.); 3) compound (however, whereas, wherever, etc.); 4) composite (as well as, as long as, in case, on the ground that, for the rea­son that, etc.). Simple […]

Conjunction: structural and semantic classifications – Part 2 →  July 16, 2012

Conjunction: structural and semantic classifications – Part 1 One cannot but notice that the use of coordinating conjunctions is not unlimited, i.e. there are some grammatically similar structures that may not be joined by coordinating conjunctions. The analysis of these limitations brings up the concept of presupposition. By presupposition we mean extralinguistic conditions that make […]

Preposition: structural and semantic classifications →  July 16, 2012

As to their morphological structure, prepositions fall under the follow­ing groups: 1) simple (in, on, at, for, with, etc.); 2) derivative (behind, below, across, along, etc.); 3) compound (inside, outside, within, without, notwithstanding, etc.); 4) composite (because of in front of, in accordance with, etc.). Linguists who recognize that prepositions have lexical meanings di­vide this […]

Conjunction – Grammatical meaning →  July 16, 2012

Conjunctions are functional words that connect separate words, word combinations, clauses or sentences and in doing so mark the relations of coordination and subordinatioh.jConsequently, the grammatical meaning of conjunctions is similar to that of prepositions: conjunctions mark grammati­cal relations but these relations are even more abstract than those indicated by prepositions. Conjunctions form a part […]

Preposition: syntactic functions →  July 14, 2012

The most controversial opinions are expressed in connection with the syntactic status of prepositions. This issue has caused clashes between the opposing interpretations. Some linguists argue that the preposition is func­tionally equal to the morpheme rather than to a word, since it stands to mark case relations. Other scholars believe that the preposition may not […]