Pragmatics of communication →  May 13, 2012

1) Pragmatics as a science 2) Pragmatic components of communication 3) Maxims of communication 4) Communicative meaning of the utterance 1. The modern use of the term “pragmatics” which comes from Greek word (meaning deed or state of affairs) is attributed to the philosopher Charles Morris, who outlined the scope of the science of signs […]

Communicative failures →  May 12, 2012

1) Causes of nature of communicative failures 2) Types of communicative failures Communicative failures can be viewed as instances of miscommunication when the speaker fails to produce the intended effect and misperception. When the hearer can not recognize what the speaker intended to communicate. The potential source of communicative failures include: 1) cultural differences Culture […]

Speech act theory →  May 11, 2012

1. Speech act structure 2. The constitutive-performative distinction 3. Speech acts classifications 1) The theory of speech act claims that all utterances perform specific actions. The term speech act was designed by John Austin, who referred it not simply to the act of speaking but to the whole communicative situation, including the context of the […]

General characteristics of communicative act →  May 10, 2012

1. Communicative act: definition and structure 2. A communicative situation 1. Communicative act is the basic unit of communication and integral functional fragment of communicative interaction. It consists of five basic components: 1) interlocutors 2) communicative situation 3) a system of communicative intentions 4) communicative process of verbalization, understanding and interaction 5) communicative text First […]

Types of communication models →  May 9, 2012

Communication Models 1. Types of communication models in modern theory 2. Basic communication model and its components 1) Classical communication models Aristotle’s speaker-centered model developed for people, who wanted to become good orators. The speaker – discovers rational (logos), emotional (pathos) and ethical (ethos) proofs. Arranges those proofs strategically: arrangement à style à delivery Linear […]

The main features of communicative process →  May 8, 2012

1. Understanding of the process of communication 2. Forms and types of communication 3. Functions of communication Communication is a two-way process involving both giving and receiving verbal and non-verbal messages. The process of communication usually takes 4 steps to be complete : 1) a message is sent (smb shares an idea or feeling with […]

Structuralism: Methods of structural analysis →  May 7, 2012

Modern scientists have come to an understanding that structural analysis has set the perfect background for the development of structuralism. Linguists see language as a complicated structure of elements, moreover all of these elements form specific relations. The main task of structuralism is to study these connections and analyze specific patterns. In the 20th century […]

The method of corpus analysis →  May 6, 2012

British National Corpus: Corpus is a large collection of computer-readable writing. Corpus linguistics is a study of linguistics that includes all processes related to processing, usage of analysis of written and spoken machine-readable corpora. Longman Written American Corpus comprised of 100 million words of American newspaper and book texts. On their official website one could find […]

Noun: Category of case in modern English grammars →  March 30, 2012

In Modern English the problem of case is reduced to the dispute whether the case category exists as such. Open to thought and questioning, this prob­lem has always been much debated. The solution of the problem depends mainly on grammarians’ interpretation of the term “case”. As we will see below, some scholars consider it to […]

Noun: Category of case in modern English grammars – Part 2 →  March 30, 2012

Noun: Category of case in modern English grammars – Part 1 We have considered the three theories which, if at basically different angles, proceed from the assumption that the English noun docs distinguish the grammatical case in its functional structure. However, another view of the problem of the English noun cases has been put forward […]